Every parent wants to raise a happy, successful, child, but what are the qualities you must instill in a young person to help them realize their dreams? Is there a magic formula that will help them blow past obstacles—including racism—and break through?

Several recent studies have found that there are certain factors that help children thrive. While it’s impossible for parents to provide a perfect environment for preparing kids to take on the world, there is now solid advice on what you should and should not do. One point is clear–children need stable, safe environments that foster a sense of belonging and growth.

At a time when inequality is a topic of concern to almost everyone, New York Time’s columnist Richard Edsall’s analysis of what the latest research tells us about what kids need to grow up to succeed begins with some things we already know. Beyond sharp cognitive skills, a young person needs: “perseverance, industriousness, grit, resilience, curiosity, application” and “self-control, future orientation, self-discipline, impulse control, and delay of gratification,” according to Richard Reeves, an expert on social mobility at the Brookings Institution.

But what type of family structure, home environment and parental support helps children develop these skills? Of course, money and social position play a role, but there are things that every parent can do to give their child a leg up in life.

Read What Does it Take to Climb the Ladder?